Jerry P. Shinley Archive:Subject: George Mantello and The Politics of Genocide
George Mantello and The Politics of Genocide
Date: 3/15/99 5:27 PM Eastern Standard Time
The Politics of Genocide : The Holocaust in Hungary
Rudolph L. Braham. (Columbia University Press, NY, 1981)
The rescue activities of El Salvador were primarily the consequence of the efforts of a single person, Georges M. Mantello (formerly know as Gyorgy Mandel or Mandl). A Hungarian Jew from the Transylvanian town of Beszterce, he arrived in Switzerland in December, 1941, reportedly as a purchasing agent for the Roumanians. Eventually he managed to have himself appointed First Secretary of the Consulate General of El Salvador in Geneva. In this capacity, he undertook several actions designed to help the victims of Nazism, especially Hungarian Jews. In connection with the latter, his achievements were twofold. First, with the cooperation of Colonel I. H. Castellanos, the Consul General, but originally without the knowledge of the government of El Salvador, Mantello sent a few hundred "nationality" certificates to Hungary. The possessors of these certificates were considered foreign nationals and exempted from general anti-Jewish decrees. (267) Some complications arose over the fact that El Salvador had no nation to look after its interests in Hungary. (268) (The Swiss, and later the Swedish, representatives in Budapest had assumed that role somewhat informally.) Mantello's second major achievement, which was shared with Pozner, was to contact Krausz in Budapest via Florian Manoliu, a member of the Roumanian Legation in Berne. It was through Manoliu that Krausz sent his June 19 report with the abbreviated version of the Auschwitz protocols that evoked the worldwide reaction against the anti-Jewish drive in Hungary (see chapters 23 and 29). (269) Acting independently of the many domestic and international Jewish organizations in Switzerland, Mantello distributed the Krausz material to leading Swiss clergymen, political and academic figures, and journalists. He was effectively supported in this campaign by Walter Garret, the Zurich representative of the London-based Exchange Telegraph Company. On relief matters, he was aided by his brother Joesph (Iosip) Mandel. (270)
267. Steiner, an official of the Swiss legation complained (July 11) to Jeni Miske-Gerstenberger of the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs that false El Salvador "nationality certificates" were being brought in from Switzerland and allegedly sold at high prices to Jews. Vadirat 3:136.
268. See Harrison telegram no. 3867 (June 17) to the Department of State, transmitting McClelland message for WRB [War Refugee Board].
269. For a highly positive evaluation of Mantello's role, see [Jeno] Levai, Zsidosors Europaban (Jewish Fate in Europe) (Budapest: Magyar Teka, 1948), 335pp.
270. Joseph Mandel (also known as Josef Mandl), a textile specialist for the I.N.C.O. firm of Bucharest, was sent to Switzerland in 1941 by the Ministry of National Defense of the Antonescu government to acquire arircraft cloth. Presumably he failed to carry out his assignment, for on October 21, 1942, the Ministry of the Interior asked N. Lahovary, the Roumanian Minister in Berne, to bring about his extradition. (The Roumanian authorities planned to deport him to Transnistria.) In Switzerland, Joseph Mandel maintained close contact with Abraham Silberschein, the head of RELICO [a Swiss-based Jewish organization], informing him periodically about developments in Hungary - news he usually obtained through his Roumanian contacts. For pertinent documents, see Yad Vashem Archives [Jerusalem] M-20/46.
It was only during the second half of June  that the Hungarian Jewish leaders began to distribute copies of the [Auschwitz] Protocols among the influential government and church leaders of Hungary and among their friends abroad. A copy was given by Peto to Miklos Horthy, Jr. for transmission to his father. Miklos (Mosche) Krausz of the Palestine Office at Budapest submitted an abbreviated English version of the Protocols, together with a report on the ghettoization, concentration, and deportation processes in Zones I-III, to Switzerland on June 19, 1944. He claimed that he had received the material only the day before from Joseph Reisner, a Jewish employee of the Turkish legation in Budapest. (84) The material was taken to Switzerland by Florian Manoliu, a member of the Roumanian Legation in Berne, who had close, and reputedly lucrative relations with George (Mandel) Mantello, a Jewish business man originally from the Transylvanian city of Beszterce, who was then serving as the First Secretary of the General Consulate of El Salvador in Geneva. Manoliu's mission was undertaken at the request of Chaim Pozner, Krausz's counterpart in Switzerland, whose note Manoliu took along as "his letter of accreditation."
The material provided by Krausz was duplicated and disseminated in Switzerland thanks to Mantello. (85) It was distributed with a covering letter dated July 4, 1944, and signed by Professor D. Karl Barth of Basel, Professor D. Emil Brunner of Zurich, Dr. W. A. Vissor t'Hooft, Geneva, and Pastor Paul Vogt of Zurich. (86) A more nearly complete version of the protocols was brought to Switzerland by a courier of the Czech underground. It was delivered to Dr. Jarumir Kopecky, the Czechoslovak Minister, who immediately made it available to the World Jewish Congress and other international Jewish organizations.
84. Interview with this author, Jerusalem, October 16, 1972. Krausz, Kasztner's long-time enemy, also claimed, without providing proof, that Kasztner obtained a copy of the Protocols in April, 1944.
85. Krausz claims that the material was addressed to Dr. Chaim Pozner, although the copies distributed in Switzerland identify Mantello as the addressee. In a letter addressed to Pozner on July 19, 1971, Krausz confirmed that he had in fact sent the material to him and not to Martello, whom he "did not know at the time and had not even heard of." He asserted that the version reproduced in several books and in the press, addressed to Mantello, was a "blantant falsification." Moreover, he disclaimed the signature and the handwritten text in Yiddish at the end of the document, claiming that it was "the fruit of someone's imagination." For a sample of the reproduction disclaimed by Krausz, see Jeno Levai, Zsidosors Europaban (Jewish Fate in Europe) (Budapest: Magyar Teka, 1948), p. 48. For the text of Krausz's letter and reports of June 19, 1944, see file M-20/95 at Yad Vashem, Jerusalem. For further details involving the activities of Krausz, Mantello, and Pozner, see chapters 29 and 31.
86. Yad Vashem Archives M-20/47. A copy of the report circulated by Reverend Vogt, head of the Fluchtlingshilfe (Refugee Aid) of Zurich, was the basis of a short article in the New York Times of July 6, 1944 p.6 ("Two Death Camps Places of Horror").
92. In a letter to Vrba, dated May 18, 1964, Mantello made the following comments on the reports he had received from Budapest: "These reports ... were short and arrived in Switzerland rather late ... If we had received your complete report about six or seven weeks earlier, say about the same time you had it sent to Budapest, perhaps we could have put a stop to the deportations, since we would have started a big press campaign in Switzerland and abroad." [Erich K.] Kulka, "Five Escapes from Auschwitz," pp 217-8 [They Fought Back. The Story of the Jewish Resistance in Nazi Europe, ed. Yuri Suhl (New York: Crown, 1967)].
We're supposed to believe Clay Shaw was a Nazi because he was associated with the man who blew the whistle on Auschwitz?
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